In October 2012 our shortened URL ( expired and was purchased by spammers before we were able to reclaim it. Part of their misuse includes redirecting this URL to an imposter site that has advertisements posted in the comment boxes. Stimson is working to take down that site and reclaim the domain name. In the interim, please update your bookmarks accordingly to Thank you all for your patience as we work through this issue.

Picture This



“Modest reforms to pay and compensation will improve readiness and modernization. It will help keep our all-volunteer force sustainable and strong. Keeping faith also means investing sufficient resources so that we can uphold our sacred obligations to defend the nation and to send our sons and daughters to war with only the best training, leadership and equipment. We can’t shrink from our obligations to one another. The stakes are too high.”

Gen. Martin E. Dempsey

« Debt Embedded in Iraq - Afghanistan Estimates Becomes Clearer | Main | USAID FY2011 Budget Seeks to Balance Strategic Priorities and Global Initiatives »

Understanding the Diaspora of US Foreign Assistance

The United States seeks to influence other nations through a variety of foreign assistance programs and initiatives that promote U.S. foreign policy.  These programs cover a wide spectrum and include training and equipping foreign militaries, counternarcotics initiatives, and global health programs, among many others.  In addition to assistance activities, the US carries out traditional diplomatic engagement, activities to promote cooperation and coordination between governments in a range of areas (e.g., law enforcement, environmental protection, and health), and promotes US interests in business and trade.

Yet, U.S. foreign assistance programs and international activities are not carried out by a single department or agency but are dispersed among multiple federal departments and agencies within the government.  In fact, U.S. foreign assistance is currently administered by 12 departments, 25 agencies and nearly 60 government offices.

The full and effective integration of all of these foreign assistance programs to achieve policy objectives remains very much a work in progress.  Currently, there is no integrated and comprehensive planning process for foreign assistance and no formal, institutionalized strategic planning across the departments and independent agencies involved in American foreign assistance programs. This fragmented structure reduces effectiveness and causes duplication, two of the main reasons Congress often cites when it cuts development funding.

The International Affairs Budget (Function 150) is the largest funding vehicle for U.S. initiatives abroad.  Function 150 provides funding to State, USAID, and other independent agencies, including the Peace Corps and the Millennium Challenge Corporation, which are separate from State and USAID but are part of the toolkit of American foreign engagement and development assistance.

The management and implementation of these programs is spread across the government.  For example, some assistance is planned by State but implemented by USAID.  Others are the direct responsibility of USAID.  Still others are planned, budgeted, and implemented by other departments or agencies.

A “snap-shot” of US assistance, shown below, demonstrates the relationship between Function 150 accounts and their implementing department or agency partners.

A significant and growing portion of US assistance programs and initiatives take place outside the world of the International Affairs budget.  These non-Function 150 programs are planned, budgeted, and implemented outside Foggy Bottom.  The Secretary of State relies on Ambassadors to coordinate all activities within their country, whether it involves visiting officials, permanent staffing, or provision of direct assistance.  Because nearly every federal department or agency has an international component to its mission, as many as 40 U.S. government ‘entities’ have personnel assigned overseas in at least one country.  A sample list demonstrates just a few of these non-150 programs.

In an effort to determine how to coordinate this diaspora of foreign assistance, the executive branch is currently conducting the new Quadrennial Diplomacy and Development Review, the Presidential Study Directive on development strategy, and interagency reviews of security assistance authorities and programs. Congress is also taking on these issues, as both authorizers and appropriators for defense and foreign affairs are considering legislative and statutory provisions that would extend DOD authorities, reform those of the State Department, or reassign responsibilities for such programs.  These are important steps, as an agile and effective foreign assistance program is vital to US national security.

Reader Comments (5)

[...] perspective?  How will the QDDR grapple with the militarization of assistance?  The diaspora of assistance funding, authorities, and capabilities has diluted State and USAID roles as well as [...]

[...] perspective?  How will the QDDR grapple with the militarization of assistance?  The diaspora of assistance funding, authorities, and capabilities has diluted State and USAID roles as well as [...]

[...] regard to the U.S., for instance, the CGD identifies sixteen difference aid agencies. Talk about a diaspora of foreign assistance! This correlates, perhaps, with the U.S.’s overall low rankings on the QuODA metrics, compared to [...]

[...] for foreign assistance has not been fully revised since 1961. This disregard has led to a highly fragmented foreign assistance infrastructure, which yields duplication and ineffectiveness. The outdated policy guidance has stripped the budget [...]

[...] diplomacy – have increased exponentially.  Policy responses are more complex than ever and a plethora of American executive branch agencies now have presences in U.S. Embassies (60 at last count) to [...]

December 14, 2010 | Unregistered CommenterThe Ambassador as CEO «

PostPost a New Comment

Enter your information below to add a new comment.

My response is on my own website »
Author Email (optional):
Author URL (optional):
Some HTML allowed: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <code> <em> <i> <strike> <strong>